Commemoration of the German Society of Gastroenterology
In memory of

Prof. Dr. med.
Ludwig Pick
1868 - 1944

Prof. Dr. med. Ludwig Pick, image source Wikipedia
Prof. Dr. med. Ludwig Pick, image source Wikipedia

Member since 1925

Studies in Heidelberg, Leipzig, Berlin, and Königsberg

Nationally and internationally highly respected pathologist

Forced retirement and deportation

Zeitschrift für Klinische Medizin 1894
Zeitschrift für Klinische Medizin 1894

Prof. Dr. med. Ludwig Pick

  • Landsberg a. d. Warthe/Gorzów, Poland, 3‌1‌.‌0‌8‌.‌1‌8‌6‌8‌
  • Theresienstadt/Terezín ghetto, Czech Republic, 0‌3‌.‌0‌2‌.‌1‌9‌4‌4‌
  • Member since 1925
  • Deported in 1943
  • Berlin
  • Specialist in pathology

Ludwig Pick was born in Landsberg an der Warthe/Gorzów in 1868 as the son of the merchant Hermann Pick and his wife Beatrice, née Schoenflies.

 

Education and Places of Work

After attending school in Landsberg, Ludwig Pick studied medicine in Heidelberg, Leipzig, Berlin, and Königsberg/Kaliningrad from 1887 and developed a special interest in pathological anatomy and histology from an early stage. Pick was influenced by the two pathologists Ernst Neumann and Cölestin Nauwerck in Königsberg.

After Pick had passed his state examination in Königsberg in 1892, he received his doctorate from the University of Leipzig the following year with the thesis “Ein Beitrag zur Aetiologie, Genese und Bedeutung der hyalinen Thrombose”. He completed his thesis under the Leipzig pathologist Felix Victor Birch-Hirschfeld. He worked at the Dr. Leopold Landauer’sche Frauenklinik in Berlin-Mitte from 1893 to 1906, first as an intern and later as head of the pathological-anatomical laboratory. Ludwig Pick habilitated in pathological anatomy at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin in 1899, following an expert opinion by Rudolf Virchow.

Zeitschrift für Klinische Medizin 1894
Zeitschrift für Klinische Medizin 1894
Sammlung Klinischer Vorträge 1900
Sammlung Klinischer Vorträge 1900

Pick was prosector and director of the Institute of Pathology at the Friedrichshain Municipal Hospital in Berlin from 1906. He was appointed “Titularprofessor” (senior lecturer) in 1909 and “Honorarprofessor” (honorary title) at the University of Berlin in 1921.

Pick actively participated in the First World War from 1914 to 1918 and received several honours.

Ludwig Pick enjoyed a great reputation both at the national and international level, and was a highly respected pathologist who worked in Berlin for more than four decades. He was extremely active scientifically and worked, among other things, on neuromas, pigments, nerve diseases, and lipoid metabolism. In addition, he dealt with questions in the field of gynaecopathology. He was the first to describe Niemann-Pick disease and undertook pioneering work in the field of new histological techniques.

Pick was invited to lecture in New York before the First World War. He delivered the “Harvey Lecture” in London in 1932 and the “Dunham Lecture” in Boston at Harvard Medical School the same year.

Numerous scientists and physicians from various countries temporarily sat in and worked with Ludwig Pick. These included the internist and pathologist Eli Moschcowitz and the later gynaecologist Robert Tilden Frank from Mount Sinai Hospital New York.

Pick was offered an appointment as a pathologist at the University of Chicago in 1933, which he declined.

 

1933

Ludwig Pick was dismissed from his post as director of the Institute of Pathology at the Berlin-Friedrichshain Municipal Hospital in 1933 and was forced to retire. His authorisation to teach at the University of Berlin was revoked on 19 October 1935. Pick worked as head of the department of pathology at the Jewish Hospital in Berlin from 1939. From this time, he had to use the designation “Krankenbehandler” for pathology (Nazi term for Jewish doctors allowed to treat Jews only).

 

Deportation to Theresienstadt/Terezín ghetto in 1943

Pick was deported from Berlin (Transport I/96) to the Theresienstadt/Terezín ghetto on 17 June 1943.

Ludwig Pick died as a result of his imprisonment at the ghetto on 3 February 1944 at the age of 75.

Publications

  1. Zur Aetiologie und Genese der hyalinen Thrombose. Arch pathol Anat Physiol Klin Med 1894; 138: 221-261
  2. Ueber Zwerchfelldurchbohrungen durch das runde Magengeschwür. Z Klin Med 1894; 26: 452-481
  3. Die Skelettform (ossäre Form) des Morbus Gaucher. Jena: Verlag von Gustav Fischer 1927 (Veröffentlichungen aus der Kriegs- und Konstitutionspathologie Band 4, Heft 17)
  4. Über das elastische Gewebe in der normalen und veränderten Gebärmutter. Leipzig: Verlag von Breitkopf und Härtel 1900 (Sammlung klinische Vorträge NF 283 = NF Serie 10,13, Sammlung klinische Vorträge)
  5. Der Morbus Gaucher und die ihm ähnlichen Erkrankungen. Die lipoidzellige Splenohepatomegalie Typus Niemann und die diabetische Lipoidzellenhyperplasie der Milz. Ergebnisse der Inneren Medizin und der Kinderheilkunde 1926; Band 29: 519-627

Sources and Further Reading
Sources
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Sources/Literature/Weblinks

Biographie of Prof. Dr. med. Ludwig Pick

Literature

  • Aufses A H Jr., Niss B J. This house of noble deeds. The Mount Sinai Hospital, 1852 – 2002. New York, London: New York University Press, 2002 238
  • Fischer I. Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden Ärzte der letzten fünfzig Jahre. Band I. Berlin, Wien: Urban & Schwarzenberg; 1932: 1214
  • Doetz S, Kopke Ch. „und dürfen das Krankenhaus nicht mehr betreten“: Der Ausschluss jüdischer und politisch unerwünschter Ärztinnen und Ärzte aus dem Berliner städtischen Gesundheitswesen 1933–1945. Berlin: Hentrich & Hentrich Verlag; 2018: 472f.
  • Gruber GG. In memoriam Ludwig Pick, 31.8.1868 – 2.3.1944. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 1968; 52: 574-580
  • Kagan S. Jewish Physicians. Boston: Medico-Historical Press 1952: 228f.
  • Neumann-Redlin von Meding, E, Conrad H. Ärzte unter dem Hakenkreuz. Die Berliner Medizinische Gesellschaft im Nationalsozialismus. Berlin: Jaron Verlag; 2013 34-36
  • Pagel J. Biographisches Lexikon hervorragender Ärzte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Reprint der Originalausgabe von 1901 nach dem Exemplar aus der Handbibliothek des Zentralantiquariats der DDR. Basel, München, Paris: S Karger Verlag; 1989: 1293
  • Schleiermacher S, Schagen U (Hg.). Die Charité im Dritten Reich. Zur Dienstbarkeit medizinischer Wissenschaft im Nationalsozialismus. Paderborn-München-Wien-Zürich: Ferdinand Schöningh 2008: 61
  • Schwoch R. Berliner Jüdische Kassenärzte und ihr Schicksal im Nationalsozialismus. Ein Gedenkbuch. Berlin: Hentrich & Hentrich Verlag 2009: 684-686
  • Schwoch R. Jüdische Ärzte als Krankenbehandler in Berlin zwischen 1938 und 1945. Frankfurt / M: Mabuse Verlag 2018: 457f.
  • Simmer HH. Der Berliner Pathologe Ludwig Pick (1868-1944). Leben und Werk eines jüdischen Deutschen. Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und Naturwissenschaften 94. Hussum: Matthiessen Verlag; 2000
  • Theresienstädter Initiative (Hg). Theresienstädter Gedenkbuch. Die Opfer der Judentransporte aus Deutschland nach Theresienstadt 1942–1945. Institut Prag. Berlin: Metropol Verlag; 2000:
  • Zeidman L A, Kondziella D. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe, Part III: victims of the Third Reich. Can J Neurol Sci 2012; 39 (6): 729-746

Weblinks